The OFFICIAL Journal of the Special Operations Medical Association.
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Overhauling how citizens and medical providers respond to trauma, as well as how they collect and store blood, could save thousands of lives annually.
July 2020 Feature Article
Background: We sought new knowledge by further developing a model of using calculations in the simulation of a first-aid task. The purpose of this study was to develop the model to investigate the performance of tourniquet use in its component steps. Methods: We aimed to design an experiment on a desktop computer by mathematically manipulating simulated data in tourniquet use. A time factor of tourniquet use was ranged widely through time challenges in five degrees from ideal to worst performances. Redesigning the task was assessed by time costs and blood losses. Results: The step of tourniquet application took 17% of the trial time and securing the tourniquet after bleeding control took the longest amount of the trial time, 31%. A minority of the time (48% [17% + 31%] to apply tourniquet plus secure it) was spent after the tourniquet touched the patient, whereas most of the time (52%) was spent before the tourniquet touched the patient. The step of tourniquet application lost 14% of the total blood lost, whereas no blood was lost during securing the tourniquet, because that was the moment of bleeding control despite securing the tourniquet taking much time (31%). Most (86%) of blood lost occurred before the tourniquet touched the patient. But blood losses differed 10-fold, with a maximum of 2,434mL, which, when added to a pretask indication blood loss of 177mL, summed to 2,611mL. Before redesigning the task, costs of donning gloves and calling 9-1-1 included uncontrolled bleeding, but gloving mitigated risk of spreading pathogens among people. By step and person, redesigns of the task altered the risk-benefit profile. Conclusions: The model was useful because it simulated where most of the bleeding occurred before the tourniquet touched the patient. Modeling simulated redesigns of the task, which showed changes in the task's risk-benefit profile by step and among persons. The model generated hypotheses for future research, including the capability to screen candidate ideas among task designs.
Integrating Military and Civilian Trauma Systems to Achieve Zero Preventable Deaths after Injury
Advances in trauma care have accelerated over the past decade, spurred by the significant burden of injury from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Between 2005 and 2013, the case fatality rate for United States Servicemembers injured in Afghanistan decreased by nearly 50 percent, despite an increase in the severity of injury among U.S. troops during the same period of time. But as the war in Afghanistan ends, knowledge and advances in trauma care developed by the Department of Defense (DoD) over the past decade from experiences in Afghanistan and Iraq may be lost. This would have implications for the quality of trauma care both within the DoD and in the civilian setting, where adoption of military advances in trauma care has become increasingly common and necessary to improve the response to multiple civilian casualty events.
This report documents the remarkable decrease in casualties killed in action during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the role of the Joint Trauma System, the CoTCCC, and the TCCC Working Group in helping to make that happen. It also outlines a clear and comprehensive vision for a National Trauma System that will enable the civilian and the military sectors to work in concert to help prevent ALL potentially preventable deaths in trauma victims.Download a free PDF copy of the IOM Report
What Our Readers are Saying
I just finished reading the fall edition of the JSOM and I am completely blown away!!!! It is absolutely packed with exceptional and relevant information that without a doubt, will assist SOF Tactical Health Care professionals in providing relevant and evidence based patient care. Thank you for providing what I consider a "World Class Medical Journal". The journal itself and the website have become my primary resource for knowledge in tactical medicine."
Robert M. Miller
North American Rescue
Chief Innovation Officer
"There is no peer-reviewed academic resource that equals the Journal of Special Operations Medicine for support of the medical and veterinary lead in Stabilization, Security, Transition and Reconstruction (SSTR) operations, combat and field medicine, and adaptation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care into Tactical Emergency Casualty Care for the law enforcement and emergency management community in 195 UN member countries. JSOM is a valuable resource as we continue the Millennium Medicine Project, targeting the global population that lacks access to basic surgical services and providing crisis management, security, and defense support in this demographic."
Stephen M. Apatow
President, Humanitarian Resource Institute
(UN:NGO:DESA) and H-II OPSEC: Defense Support:
Humanitarian and Security Operations
"Military units that have trained all of their members in Tactical Combat Casualty Care have documented the lowest incidence of preventable deaths among their casualties in the history of modern warfare - and JSOM is the first journal to publish every new change in TCCC."
Frank K. Butler, MD
Chairman, Committee on Tactical
Combat Casualty Care (CoTCCC)
"The past 30 years has brought an amazing professionalization of the specialty of Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS). As new standards are set and the world faces increasingly complex security challenges, it is critical that the front line medical providers supporting military, intelligence, and law enforcement operations have a mechanism to expand their knowledge and share best practices. The Journal of Special Operations Medicine offers civilian readers access to the most cutting edge developments in the field including updates on Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (TECC), the National TEMS Imitative and Council (NTIC), and combat lessons learned. JSOM is the one-stop shop for best practice and future advancements in civilian TEMS. One of the unifying principles across humanitarian, expedition and disaster response medical operations is the ability to make complex decisions in uncertain environments. The Journal of Special Operations Medicine is one of the most unique platforms for experts to convey lessons learned and relevant scientific advances across specialties that historically have little interaction. Whether you work for Doctors Without Borders, a DMAT, or provide medical support for expeditions in austere environments, Journal of Special Operations Medicine is your journal."
David W. Callaway, MD
Director, Division of Operational and Disaster Medicine
Operational Medical Director, Carolinas MED-1
Co-Chairman, The Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC)
Civilian Vice President, Special Operations Medical Association (SOMA)