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This week's featured articles

3/1/2021

Human Bocavirus as a Possible Contributor to Respiratory Disease in the Georgian Military Population

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Akhvlediani N, Walls S, Latif NH, Markhvashvili N, Javakhishvili N, Mitaishvili N, Marliani D, Hering K, Washington MA. 20(4). 100 - 103. (Journal Article)

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated that new and devastating respiratory pathogens can emerge without warning. It is therefore imperative that Special Operations medical personnel be aware of the presence of emerging pathogens within their area of operation. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly described member of a family of viruses known as the Parvovirinae that are often associated with acute respiratory illness. The presence of HBoV in the country of Georgia has not been previously reported. Nasal and throat swabs were collected from 95 symptomatic members of the Georgian military. HBoV was detected in 11 of them (12%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of HBoV infection in the country of Georgia. This finding may have a significant impact on members of the Special Operations community who train in Georgia as more data concerning the transmission, pathogenesis, and treatment of HBoV are accumulated and the role of HBoV in human disease is more clearly defined.

Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; respiratory pathogens; bocavirus; human bocavirus

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The Downrange Acoustic Toolbox: An Active Solution for Combat-Related Acute Acoustic Trauma

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Lee JD, Bowley DM, Miles JA, Muzaffar J, Poole R, Orr LE. 20(4). 104 - 111. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Frontline military personnel are at high risk of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) caused by impulse noise, such as weapon firing or blast. This can result in anatomic disruption of the tympanic membrane and damage to the middle and inner ear, leading to conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing loss that may be temporary or permanent. AAT reduces warfighters' operational effectiveness and has implications for future quality of life. Hearing protection devices can mitigate AAT but are not completely protective. Novel therapeutic options now exist; therefore, identification of AAT as soon as possible from point of injury is vital to ensure optimal treatment and fulfillment of the duty of care. Early recognition and treatment of frontline AAT can maintain the deployed team's capabilities, avoid unnecessary case evacuation (CASEVAC), and raise awareness of military occupational AAT. This will help prioritize hearing preservation, maintain the fighting force, and ultimately retain personnel in service. The UK Defence hearWELL research collaboration has developed a frontline protocol for the assessment of AAT utilizing future-facing technology developed by the US Department of Defense: the Downrange Acoustic Toolbox (DAT). The DAT has been operationally deployed since 2019 and has successfully identified AAT requiring treatment, thereby improving casualties' hearing and reducing unnecessary repatriation.

Keywords: hearing loss, noise-induced; acute acoustic trauma; noise, occupational; military personnel; hearing protective devices; telemedicine; steroid

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