This Role 1 prolonged field care (PFC) guideline is intended for use in the austere environment when evacuation to higher level of care is not immediately possible. A provider must first be an expert in Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC). The intent of this guideline is to provide a functional, evidence-based and experience-based solution to those individuals who must manage patients suspected of having or diagnosed with sepsis in an austere environment. Emphasis is placed on the basics of diagnosis and treatment using the tools most familiar to a Role 1 provider. Ideal hospital techniques are adapted to meet the limitations of austere environments while still maintaining the highest standards of care possible. Sepsis and septic shock are medical emergencies. Patients suspected of having either of these conditions should be immediately evacuated out of the austere environment to higher echelons of care. These patients are often complex, requiring 24-hour monitoring, critical care skills, and a great deal of resources to treat. Obtaining evacuation is the highest treatment priority for these patients. This Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) uses the minimum, better, best paradigm familiar to PFC and gives medics of varying capabilities and resources options for treatment.
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of prehospital extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) in the military exercise setting. Methods: Three 40kg Sus scrofa (wild swine) underwent controlled 35% blood loss and administration of potassium chloride to achieve cardiac arrest (CA). During CPR, initiated 1 minute after CA, the animals were transported to Role 1. Femoral vessels were cannulated, followed by E-CPR using a portable perfusion device. Crystalloid and blood transfusions were initiated, followed by tactical evacuation to Role 2 and 4-hour observation. Results: All animals developed sustained asystole. Chest compressions supported effective but gradually deteriorating blood circulation. Two animals underwent successful E-CPR, with restoration of perfusion pressure to 80mmHg (70-90mmHg) 25 and 23 minutes after the induction of CA. After transportation to Role 2, one animal developed abdominal compartment syndrome as a result of extensive (9L) fluid replacement. The other animal received a lower volume of crystalloids (4L), and no complications occurred. In the third animal, multiple attempts to cannulate arteries were unsuccessful because of spasm and hypotension. Open aortic cannulation enabled the circuit to commence. No return of spontaneous circulation was ultimately achieved in either of the remaining animals. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates both the potential feasibility of battlefield E-CPR and the evolving capability in the care of severey injured combat casualties.