Kragh JF, O'Conor DK. 23(1). 9 - 16. (Journal Article)
We sought to better understand the frostbite risk during first-aid tourniquet use by reviewing information relevant to an association between tourniquet use and frostbite. However, there is little information concerning this subject, which may be of increasing importance because future conflicts against near-peer competitors may involve extreme cold weather environments. Historically, clinical frostbite cases with tourniquet use occurred in low frequency but in high severity when leading to limb amputation. The physiologic response of vasoconstriction to cold exposure leads to limb cooling and causes a reduction of limb blood flow, but cold-induced vasodilation ensues as periodic fluctuations that increase blood flow to hands and feet. In animal experiments, tourniquet use increased the development of frostbite. Evidence from human experiments also supports an association between tourniquet use and frostbite. Clinical guidance for caregiving to casualties at risk for frostbite with tourniquet use had previously been provided but slowly and progressively dropped out of documents. Conclusions: The cause of frostbite was deduced to be a sufficiently negative heat-transfer trend in local tissues, which tourniquet use may worsen because of decreasing tissue perfusion. An association between tourniquet use and frostbite exists but not as cause and effect. Tourniquet use increased the risk of the cold causing frostbite by allowing faster cooling of a limb because of reduced blood flow and lack of cold-induced vasodilation. Care providers above the level of the lay public are warned that first-aid tourniquet use in low-temperature (<0°C [<32°F]) environmental conditions risks frostbite.
Keywords: bleeding control and prevention; first aid; prehospital care; freezing cold injury; complication; wounds and injuries
Bryan CJ, Rush SC, Fuessel-Herrmann D, Bryan AO, Morrow CE, Haskell J, Jones MJ, Bowerfind C, Stephenson JA. 23(1). 18 - 22. (Journal Article)
Background: Research among military personnel and veterans indicates that subjective appraisal of warzone stressors explains the relation of combat exposure to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but not the relation of exposure to injury and death to PTSD. Studies have primarily been limited to conventional forces using aggregate measures of warzone stressor exposure. Threat appraisal may play a different role in the emergence of PTSD among military personnel for whom dangerous deployment experiences are more closely associated with exposure to injury and death, such as US Air Force Pararescuemen and Combat Rescue officers. Materials and Methods: In a sample of 207 rescue personnel, correlations among various types of warzone stressor exposure, threat appraisal, and postdeployment PTSD symptoms were examined. Results: The relative strongest correlates of threat appraisal were stressors related to injury, death, and human remains. Although exposure to these stressors was also correlated with PTSD symptom severity, partial correlations of stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms were no longer significant when adjusting for threat appraisal. Conclusion: Results support the contributing role of threat appraisal to PTSD among military personnel whose primary duties entail exposure to injury and death under hostile and dangerous conditions.
Keywords: PTSD; combat; pararescue; threat appraisal
Schauer SG, Hudson IL, Fisher AD, Dion G, Long B, Blackburn MB, De Lorenzo RA, Shaw TA, April MD. 23(1). 23 - 29. (Journal Article)
Background: Airway obstruction is the second leading cause of potentially survivable death on the battlefield. Assessing outcomes associated with airway interventions is important, and temporal trends can reflect the influence of training, technology, the system of care, and other factors. We assessed mortality among casualties undergoing prehospital airway intervention occurring over the course of combat operations during 2007-2019. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a previously described dataset from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR). We included only casualties with documented placement of an endotracheal tube, cricothyrotomy, or supraglottic airway (SGA) in the prehospital setting. Results: Within the DODTR from January 2007 to December 2019, there were 25,849 adult encounters with documentation of any prehospital activity. Within that group, there were 251 documented cricothyrotomies, 1,147 documented intubations, and 35 documented supraglottic airways placed. Cricothyrotomy recipients had a median age of 25. Within this group, the largest proportion were non-North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military personnel (35%), were injured by explosives (54%), had a median injury severity score (ISS) of 24, and 60% survived to hospital discharge. Intubation recipients had a median age of 24. Within this group, the largest proportion were non-NATO military personnel (37%), were injured by explosives (57%), had a median ISS of 18, and 76% survived to hospital discharge. SGA recipients had a median age of 28. Within this group, the largest proportion were non-NATO military (37%), were injured by firearms (48%), had a median ISS of 25, and 54% survived to hospital discharge. A downward trend existed in the quantity of all procedures performed during the study period. In both unadjusted and adjusted regression models, we identified no year-to-year differences in survival after prehospital cricothyrotomy or SGA placement. In the unadjusted and adjusted models, we noted a decrease in mortality during the 2007-2008 (odds ratio [OR] for death 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.86) and an increase from 2012-2013 (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.09-4.05) for prehospital intubation. Conclusion: Mortality among combat casualties undergoing prehospital or emergency department airway interventions showed no sustained change during the study period. These findings suggest that advances in airway resuscitation are necessary to achieve mortality improvements in potentially survivable airway injuries in the prehospital setting.
Keywords: prehospital; trend; airway; combat; outcome; survival; military
Smith S, Liu M, Ball I, Meunier B, Hilsden R. 23(1). 31 - 37. (Journal Article)
Medical leadership must decide how prehospital airways will be managed in a combat environment, and airway skills can be complicated and difficult to learn. Evidence informed airway strategies are essential. A search was conducted in Medline and EMBASE databases for prehospital combat airway use. The primary data of interest was what type of airway was used. Other data reviewed included: who performed the intervention and the success rate of the intervention. The search strategy produced 2,624 results, of which 18 were included in the final analysis. Endotracheal intubation, cricothyroidotomy, supraglottic airways, and nasopharyngeal airways have all been used in the prehospital combat environment. This review summarizes the entirety of the available combat literature such that commanders may make an evidence-based informed decision with respect to their airway management policies.
Keywords: endotracheal intubation; airway; cricothyroidotomy; supraglottic airways; and nasopharyngeal airways
Lovalekar M, Keenan KA, Bird M, Cruz DE, Beals K, Nindl BC. 23(1). 38 - 44. (Journal Article)
Background: Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) are an important cause of morbidity in the military, especially among Special Forces. The aim of this analysis was to describe MSIs among two groups of Naval Special Warfare (NSW) personnel-Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewman (SWCC) Operators and Crewman Qualification Training (CQT) students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we describe self-reported MSIs that occurred during a one-year period and the calculated financial costs of MSIs. Group comparisons were conducted using Fisher's exact tests and independent samples t tests. Results: Data were available for 142 SWCC Operators (26.9 ± 5.9 years, 1.8 ± 0.1 meters, 85.4 ± 10.4 kilograms) and 187 CQT students (22.8 ± 3.2 years, 1.8 ± 0.2 meters, 81.4 ± 8.9 kilograms). The one-year cumulative MSI incidence was significantly lower among SWCC Operators (21.1%) compared to CQT students (37.4%, p = 0.002). The most common anatomic location for MSIs was the lower extremity (SWCC: 50.0% of MSIs, CQT: 66.3%). Physical training was the predominant activity when MSIs occurred (SWCC: 31.6%, CQT: 77.6%). The lifetime cost of all the MSIs included in the analysis was approximately $580,000 among 142 SWCC Operators and $1.2 million among 187 CQT students. Conclusion: MSIs, especially those affecting the lower extremity and occurring during physical training, cause considerable morbidity and financial burden among NSW personnel. Many of the musculoskeletal injuries are to musculotendinous tissue, which typically results from tissue overload or inadequate recovery. Further investigation of the preventable causes of these MSIs and development of a customized, evidence-based MSI prevention program is required to reduce the burden of these MSIs.
Keywords: military personnel; incidence; cross-sectional studies; self-report; sprains and strains
Mannion E, Pirrallo RG, Dix A, Estes L. 23(1). 46 - 53. (Journal Article)
Background: Transfusion of blood products is life-saving and time-sensitive in the setting of acute blood-loss anemia, and is increasingly common in the emergency medical services (EMS) setting. Prehospital blood products are generally "cold-stored" at 4°C, then warmed with a portable fluid-warming system for the purpose of preventing the "lethal triad" of hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy. This study aims to evaluate body temperature changes of EMS patients receiving packed red blood cells (PRBC) and/or fresh frozen plasma (FFP) when using the LifeWarmer Quantum Blood & Fluid Warming System (LifeWarmer, https://www.lifewarmer.com/). Methods: From 1 January 2020 to 31 August 2021, patients who qualified for and received PRBC and/or FFP were retrospectively reviewed. Body-temperature homeostasis pre- and post-transfusion were evaluated with attention given to those who arrived to the emergency department (ED) hypothermic (<36°C). Results: For all 69 patients analyzed, the mean initial prehospital temperature (°C) was 36.5 ± 1.0, and the mean initial ED temperature was 36.7 ± 0.6, demonstrating no statically significant change in value pre- or post-transfusion (0.2 ± 0.8, p = .09). Shock index showed a statistically significant decrease following transfusion: 1.5 ± 0.5 to 0.9 ± 0.4 (p < .001). Conclusion: Use of the Quantum prevents the previously identified risk of hypothermia with respect to unwarmed prehospital transfusions. The data is favorable in that body temperature did not decrease in critically ill patients receiving cold-stored blood warmed during administration with the Quantum.
Keywords: prehospital blood transfusion; lethal triad; damage-control resuscitation; Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Zink N, Merelman A, Fisher AD, Lauria MJ. 23(1). 54 - 58. (Journal Article)
Clinicians involved in the care of critically ill patients are often exposed to demanding and stressful situations that require immediate action. Evidence suggests that human performance can be significantly diminished when multiple stressors and stimuli are present. Humans have developed conscious and unconscious methods of dealing with this type of cognitive overload in various high-risk occupations, but these coping methods have not necessarily been structured and adapted to the provision of emergency medical care. Emergency reflex action drills (ERADs) are derived from available evidence in specific domains (e.g., airway management) and develop automaticity of critical skills which engender quick, effective, and reproducible performance with minimal cognitive load. These are pre-planned, practiced responses to specific, high-demand and time-sensitive situations. This article outlines the psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects of stress that affect performance and necessitate development of ERADs. It also reviews the scientific underpinnings behind how humans have adapted cognitive behavioral techniques to manage under high-stress situations. Finally, this article recommends the adoption of these cognitive tactics via ERADs to enhance clinical practice and provides an example in the context of airway management.
Keywords: adaption; error; performance; stress; training
Kamler JJ, Taube S, Koch EJ, Lauria MJ, Kue RC, Rush SC. 23(1). 59 - 66. (Journal Article)
Mass casualty incidents (MCIs) can rapidly exhaust available resources and demand the prioritization of medical response efforts and materials. Principles of triage (i.e., sorting) from the 18th century have evolved into a number of modern-day triage algorithms designed to systematically train responders managing these chaotic events. We reviewed reports and studies of MCIs to determine the use and efficacy of triage algorithms. Despite efforts to standardize MCI responses and improve the triage process, studies and recent experience demonstrate that these methods have limited accuracy and are infrequently used.
Keywords: mass casualty; trauma
Baribeau V, Murugappan K, Sharkey A, Lodico DN, Walsh DP, Lin DC, Wong VT, Weinstein J, Matyal R, Mahmood F, Mitchell JD. 23(1). 67 - 73. (Journal Article)
Background: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is commonly employed to image the heart, lungs, and abdomen. Rapid ultrasound for shock and hypotension (RUSH) exams are a critical component of POCUS employed in austere environments by Special Operations Forces (SOF) and tactical medics for triage and diagnosis. Despite its utility, training for POCUS remains largely unstandardized with respect to feedback and markers of proficiency. We hypothesized that motion analysis could objectively identify improvement in medics' performance of RUSH exams. Furthermore, we predicted that motion metrics would correlate with qualitative ratings administered by attending anesthesiologists. Methods: A team of civilian and military attending anesthesiologists trained 24 medics in POCUS during a 5-day course. Each medic performed eight RUSH exams using an ultrasound probe equipped with an electromagnetic motion sensor to track total distance travelled (path length), movements performed (translational motions), degrees rotated (rotational sum), and time. Instructors (experts) observed and rated the exams on the following items: image finding, image fine-tuning, speed, final image accuracy, and global assessment. Motion metrics were used to provide feedback to medics throughout the course. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the trends of motion metrics across all trials. Correlations amongst motion metrics and expert ratings were assessed with Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Participants exhibited a negative trend in all motion metrics (p < 0.001). Pearson correlation coefficients revealed moderate inverse correlations amongst motion metrics and expert ratings. Conclusion: Motion analysis was able to quantify and describe the performance of medics training in POCUS and correlated with expert ratings.
Keywords: medic; motion analysis; point-of-care ultrasound; POCUS; rapid ultrasound for shock and hypotension
Neading R, Scarborough T, O'Connell M, Leasiolagi J, Little M, Burgess J, Hargrove M, Goodfellow A, Scheiber C, Cap AP, Yazer MH. 23(1). 74 - 79. (Journal Article)
Special Operations Forces (SOF) medical personnel have been at the forefront of administering blood products in the austere field medicine environment. These far-forward medical providers regularly treat patients and deliver blood transfusions in some of the world's most extreme environments with minimal resources. A multitude of questions have been raised on this topic based on the unique experiences of senior providers in this field. In this paper, we analyze the available literature and present the recommendations of several experts in transfusion medicine for managing atypical field transfusion scenarios.
Keywords: low titer O whole blood; field medicine; transfusion reactions; blood products
Clerkin S, Carlson NT, Long B, Taylor DH, Bridwell R. 23(1). 80 - 83. (Case Reports)
As arctic warfare becomes a center focus within Special Operations, cold weather injury looms as both a medical and operational threat. While cold weather injury can range from pernio to hemodynamically unstable systemic hypothermia, the more minor injuries are far more common. However, these present a challenge in austere medical care and can drastically impact mission capability. We present a case of a Special Operations crew chief with cold weather digital injury while at the Arctic Isolation Course in Alaska and his subsequent clinical course. Prevention remains the key for mitigating these injuries, while the decision to rewarm must be made with both medical and tactical factors in mind as refreezing incurs significant morbidity. Other components of prehospital treatment include active rewarming, ibuprofen, aloe vera, and pain control.
Keywords: arctic warfare; cold injury; frostbite; rewarm; Alaska; hypothermia; austere
Dubecq C, Montagnon R, Morand G, De Rocquigny G, Petit L, Peyrefitte S, Dubourg O, Pasquier P, Mahe P. 23(1). 84 - 87. (Case Reports)
Optimal pain management is challenging in Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC), particularly in remote and austere settings. In these situations, appropriate treatment for prehospital analgesia can be limited or delayed due to the lack of intravenous access. Several guidelines suggest to implement intranasal (IN) analgesia in French Armed Forces for forward combat casualty care (Sauvetage au Combat), similar to the US TCCC. Four medical teams from the French Medical Military Service were deployed to the Middle East and Sahel from August 2017 to March 2019 and used IN ketamine for analgesia in 76 trauma patients, out of a total of 259 treated casualties. IN administration of ketamine 50mg appeared to be safe and effective, alone or in addition to other opioid analgesics. It also had minimal side effects and led to a reduction in the doses of ketamine and morphine used by the intravenous (IV) route. The French Military Medical Service supports current developments for personal devices delivering individual doses of IN ketamine. However, further studies are needed to analyze its efficacy and safety in combat zones.
Keywords: military medicine; casualties; intranasal; ketamine; prehospital analgesia
Scott J, Linderman JR, Deuster PA. 23(1). 88 - 91. (Journal Article)
Full-spectrum Human Performance Optimization (HPO) is essential for Special Operations Forces (SOF). Adequate hydration is essential to all aspects of performance (physical and cognitive) and recovery. Water losses occur as a result of physical activity and can increase further depending on clothing and environmental conditions. Without intentional and appropriate strategic hydration planning, Operators are at increased risk for degradation in performance and exertional heat illness. The purpose of this article is to highlight current best practices for maintaining hydration before, during, and after activity, while considering various environmental conditions. Effective leadership and planning are necessary for preparing Operators for successful military operations.
Keywords: hydration; Special Operations Forces; SOF; human performance optimization; HPO; nutrition
Klucher J, Gonzalez A, Shishido AA. 23(1). 92 - 95. (Journal Article)
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is the most widespread tickborne virus causing human disease. CCHF wields a mortality rate up to 30% and was responsible for the death of a US Soldier in 2009. The virus is spread by the Hyalomma species of hard tick found across Central Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia south of the 50° parallel. Infection typically consists of a 1-7-day non-specific viral prodrome, followed by onset of hemorrhagic disease on days 7-10. Severe disease may cause thrombocytopenia, transaminitis, petechial hemorrhage, hematemesis, and death typically by day 10 of illness. Education and insect control are paramount to disease prevention. Treatment is predominantly supportive care, though evidence suggests a benefit of early ribavirin administration. CCHF has caused multiple nosocomial outbreaks, and therefore consideration should be given to safe transport and evacuation of infected and exposed patients. Given the wide area of distribution, transmissibility, innocuous arthropod vectors, and high mortality rate, it is imperative that Special Operations Forces (SOF) providers be aware of CCHF and the existing countermeasures.
Keywords: military medicine; bioagent; zoonosis; tickborne diseases
Knapik JJ, Hoedebecke SS. 23(1). 96 - 102. (Journal Article)
Obesity is a worldwide health problem that has reached pandemic proportions. In the military, obesity and overweight are associated with health problems, attrition from military service, and reduced job performance. National and international organizations suggest body mass index (BMI) as a population screening tool to define overweight and obesity. BMI is calculated as weight/height2 (kg/m2). Four categories of adult BMI are underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), healthy weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (=30.0 kg/m2). This article reports on a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association between BMI and injury risk among military service members (SMs). Studies were selected for review if they involved military personnel, were prospective or retrospective observational studies, and contained original quantitative data on injury risk at all four BMI levels. Nine studies met the review criteria. Pooled data from these investigations indicated that underweight, overweight, and obese individuals were at 1.17 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.07-1.28), 1.03 (95%CI=1.01-1.06), and 1.15 (95%CI=1.11-1.20) times higher risk of injury than healthy weight individuals, respectively. Compared with healthy weight SMs, military personnel with both low and high BMI are at higher injury risk.
Keywords: body mass index; injury; Underweight; Overweight; Obese; meta-analysis; systematic review
Anderson JL, Kronstedt S, Bergens MA, Johannigman J. 23(1). 103 - 106. (Journal Article)
Keywords: Lest We Forget; combat casualty care; war wound therapy; antibiotic therapy; wound care
Johnston LR, Nam JJ, Nissen AP, Sleeter JJ, Aden JK, Mills AF, Sams VG. 23(1). 107 - 113. (Journal Article)
Background: Patients with rib fractures are at high risk for morbidity and mortality. This study prospectively examines bedside percent predicted forced vital capacity (% pFVC) in predicting complications for patients suffering multiple rib fractures. The authors hypothesize that increased % pFVC is associated with reduced pulmonary complications. Methods: Adult patients with =3 rib fractures admitted to a level I trauma center, without cervical spinal cord injury or severe traumatic brain injury, were consecutively enrolled. FVC was measured at admission and % pFVC values were calculated for each patient. Patient were grouped by % pFVC <30% (low), 30-49% (moderate), and =50% (high). Results: A total of 79 patients were enrolled. Percent pFVC groups were similar except for pneumothorax being most frequent in the low group (47.8% vs. 13.9% and 20.0%, p = .028). Pulmonary complications were infrequent and did not differ between groups (8.7% vs. 5.6% vs. 0%, p = .198). Discussion: Increased % pFVC was associated with reduced hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) and increased time to discharge to home. Percent pFVC should be used in addition to other factors to risk stratify patients with multiple rib fractures. Bedside spirometry is a simple tool that can help guide management in resource-limited settings, especially in large-scale combat operations. Conclusion: This study prospectively demonstrates that % pFVC at admission represents an objective physiologic assessment that can be used to identify patients likely to require an increased level of hospital care.
Keywords: chest trauma; rib fracture; forced vital capacity; pulmonary function test; risk stratification; prolonged casualty care; prolonged field care; bedside spirometry
Pajuelo Castro JJ. 23(1). 110 - 120. (Journal Article)
Speicher MV, McGowan J, Pruett S, Shurden J, Bianchi W, Kibler A. 23(1). 114 - 116. (Journal Article)
Trauma casualty care has historically been the cornerstone of special operations military medical training. A recent case of myocardial infarction at a remote base of operations in Africa highlights the importance of foundational medical knowledge and training. A 54-year-old government contractor supporting operations in the AFRICOM area of responsibility (AOR) presented to the Role 1 medic with substernal chest pain with onset during exercise. Abnormal rhythm strips concerning for ischemia were obtained from his monitors. A MEDEVAC to a Role 2 facility was arranged and executed. At the Role 2 a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) was diagnosed. The patient was emergently evacuated on a lengthy flight to a civilian Role 4 treatment facility for definitive care. He was found to have a 99% occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, as well as a 75% occlusion of the posterior coronary artery and a chronic 100% occlusion of the circumflex artery. The LAD and posterior arteries were stented, and the patient made a favorable recovery. This case highlights the importance of preparedness for medical emergencies and care of medically critical patients in remote and austere locations.
Pasquier P, Josse F, Mahe P. 23(1). 117 - 126. (Clinical Conference)
For the first time in Europe, the Paris Special Operations Forces-Combat Medical Care (SOF-CMC) Conference, a satellite conference of the CMC-Conference in Ulm, Germany, took place on October 20-21, 2022, at the famous École du Val-de-Grâce in Paris, France, a historic and emblematic site for French military medicine (Figure 1). The Paris SOF-CMC Conference was organized by the French SOF Medical Command and the CMC Conference. Under the authority of COL Dr Pierre Mahé (French SOF Medical Command), the two scientific leaders of the conference (Figure 2), COL Prof. Pierre Pasquier (France) and LTC Dr Florent Josse (Germany), advanced a high scientific level around medical support in the field of Special Operations. This international symposium was dedicated to military physicians and paramedics as well as trauma and specialized surgeons involved in the medical support of Special Operations. International medical experts provided updates on current scientific data. They also presented the points of view of their respective nations on the evolution of war medicine during very high-level scientific sessions. The conference brought together nearly 300 participants (Figure 3), speakers, and industrial partners from more than 30 countries (Figure 4). This new Paris SOF-CMC Conference will be held every 2 years alternately with the CMC Conference in Ulm.
Graverson SP. 23(1). 127 - 127. (Book Review)
Anthony Sadler; Alek Skarlatos; Spencer Stone; Jeffrey E. Stern. The 15:17 to Paris: The True Story of a Terrorist, a Train, and Three American Heroes. 2018. 256 pp. ISBN: 978-1-61039-734-6 (EB)
Conyers K, Gillies AB, Sibley C, McMullen C, Remley MA, Wence S, Gurney J. 23(1). 130 - 133. (Journal Article)
Background: With most combat deaths occurring in prehospital settings, the US Armed Forces focuses on life-threatening conditions at or near the point of injury. Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines are required for all US Servicemembers. Multinational militaries lack this requirement, and international partner forces often have limited prehospital medical training. Methods: From November 2019 to March 2020, military members assigned to the Role 2E at the Hamid Kazai International Airport (HKIA) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) base conducted multinational TCCC training. The standardized Joint Trauma System (JTS) TCCC curriculum consisted of two-day classroom instruction and situational training exercises. Competency was assessed through verbalized and demonstrated knowledge. After Action Reviews (AAR) were completed. Results: Twelve multinational TCCC training courses trained 590 military Servicemembers and civilians from 10 countries, ranging from 16 to 62 participants (avg class size = 35). Portugal and Turkey represented the two largest participating nations with 219 and 133, respectively. Student feedback determined optimal group ratios for instruction. AARs were reviewed to categorize best practices. Conclusion: Multinational TCCC standardization will save lives. Most nations lack TCCC training requirements. Thus, providing opportunities for standardized training for HKIA residents helped established a multinational baseline of medical interoperability. Utilizing this curriculum in multinational environments can replicate these results. International adoption of TCCC is dynamic and ongoing and should be promulgated to reduce preventable deaths.
Keywords: Tactical Combat Casualty Care; TCCC; training, trauma; MASCAL; mass casualty; deployed