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Featured Articles

Winter 2017

Female Genital Mutilation as a Concern for Special Operations and Tactical Emergency Medical Support Medics

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Wittich AC. 17(4). 14 - 17. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Female genital mutilation (FGM), frequently called female genital cutting or female circumcision, is the intentional disfigurement of the external genitalia in young girls and women for the purpose of reducing libido and ensuring premarital virginity. This traditional, nontherapeutic procedure to suppress libido and prevent sexual intercourse before marriage has been pervasive in Northern Africa, the Middle East, and the Arabian peninsula for over 2,500 years. FGM permanently destroys the genital anatomy while frequently causing multiple and serious complications. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics proposed a classification system of FGM according to the specific genital anatomy removed and the extensiveness of genital disfigurement. Although it has been ruled illegal in most countries, FGM continues to be performed worldwide. With African, Asian, and Middle Eastern immigration to the United States and Europe, western countries are experiencing FGM in regions where these immigrants have concentrated. As deployments of Special Operations Forces (SOF) increase to regions in which FGM is pervasive, and as African, Asian, and Middle Eastern immigration to the United States increases, SOF and Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) medics will necessarily be called upon to evaluate and treat complications resulting from FGM. The purpose of this article is to educate SOF/TEMS medical personnel about the history, geographic regions, classification of procedures, complications, and medical treatment of patients with FGM.

Keywords: female genital mutilation; FGM; female circumcision; external genetalia; International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics

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Extraglottic Airways in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: TCCC Guidelines Change 17-01 28 August 2017

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Otten EJ, Montgomery HR, Butler FK. 17(4). 19 - 28. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Extraglottic airway (EGA) devices have been used by both physicians and prehospital providers for several decades. The original TCCC Guidelines published in 1996 included a recommendation to use the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as an option to assist in securing the airway in Tactical Evacuation (TACEVAC) phase of care. Since then, a variety of EGAs have been used in both combat casualty care and civilian trauma care. In 2012, the Committee on TCCC (CoTCCC) and the Defense Health Board (DHB) reaffirmed support for the use of supraglottic airway (SGA) devices in the TACEVAC phase of TCCC, but did not recommend a specific SGA based on the evidence available at that point in time. This paper will use the more inclusive term "extraglottic airway" instead of the term "supragottic airway" used in the DHB memo. Current evidence suggests that the i-gel® (Intersurgical Complete Respiratory Systems; http://www.intersurgical.com/info/igel) EGA performs as well or better than the other EGAs available and has other advantages in ease of training, size and weight, cost, safety, and simplicity of use. The gel-filled cuff in the i-gel both eliminates the need for cuff pressure monitoring during flight and reduces the risk of pressure-induced neuropraxia to cranial nerves in the oropharynx and hypopharynx as a complication of EGA use. The i-gel thus makes the medic's tasks simpler and frees him or her from the requirement to carry a cuff manometer as part of the medical kit. This latest change to the TCCC Guidelines as described below does the following things: (1) adds extraglottic airways (EGAs) as an option for airway management in Tactical Field Care; (2) recommends the i-gel as the preferred EGA in TCCC because its gel-filled cuff makes it simpler to use than EGAs with air-filled cuffs and also eliminates the need for monitoring of cuff pressure; (3) notes that should an EGA with an air-filled cuff be used, the pressure in the cuff must be monitored, especially during and after changes in altitude during casualty transport; (4) emphasizes COL Bob Mabry's often-made point that extraglottic airways will not be tolerated by a casualty unless he or she is deeply unconscious and notes that an NPA is a better option if there is doubt about whether or not the casualty will tolerate an EGA; (5) adds the use of suction as an adjunct to airway management when available and appropriate (i.e., when needed to remove blood and vomitus); (6) clarifies the wording regarding cervical spine stabilization to emphasize that it is not needed for casualties who have sustained only penetrating trauma (without blunt force trauma); (7) reinforces that surgical cricothyroidotomies should not be performed simply because a casualty is unconscious; (8) provides a reminder that, for casualties with facial trauma or facial burns with suspected inhalation injury, neither NPAs nor EGAs may be adequate for airway management, and a surgical cricothyroidotomy may be required; (9) adds that pulse oximetry monitoring is a useful adjunct to assess airway patency and that capnography should also be used in the TACEVAC phase of care; and (10) reinforces that a casualty's airway status may change over time and that he or she should be frequently reassessed.

Keywords: extraglottic airway; i-gel; TCCC; Tactical Combat Casualty Care; guidelines

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Assessment of User, Glove, and Device Effects on Performance of Tourniquet Use in Simulated First Aid

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Kragh JF, Aden JK, Lambert CD, Moore VK, Dubick MA. 17(4). 29 - 36. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Background: The effects of users, glove types, and tourniquet devices on the performance of limb tourniquet use in simulated first aid were measured. Materials and Methods: Four users conducted 180 tests of tourniquet performance in eight glove groups compared with bare hands as a control. Results: Among tests, 99% (n = 179) had favorable results for each of the following: effectiveness (i.e., bleeding control), distal pulse stoppage, and tourniquet placement at the correct site. However, only 90% of tests ended with a satisfactory result, which is a composite outcome of aggregated metrics if all (patient status is stable, tourniquet placement is good, and pressure is good) are satisfactory. Of 18 unsatisfactory results, 17 (94%) were due to pressure problems. Most of the variance of the majority of continuous metrics (time to determination of bleeding control, trial time, overall time, pressure, and blood loss) could be attributed to the users (62%, 55%, 61%, 8%, and 68%, respectively). Glove effects impaired and slowed performance; three groups (cold gloves layered under mittens, mittens, and cold gloves) consistently had significant effects and five groups (examination gloves, flight gloves, leather gloves, glove liners, and glove liners layered under leather gloves) did not. For time to bleeding control and blood loss, performance using these same three glove groups had worse results compared with bare hands by 26, 18, and 17 seconds and by 188, 116, and 124mL, respectively. Device effects occurred only with continuous metrics and were often dominated by user effects. Conclusion: In simulated first aid with tourniquets used to control bleeding, users had major effects on most performance metrics. Glove effects were significant for three of eight glove types. Tourniquet device effects occurred only with continuous metrics and were often dominated by user effects.

Keywords: glove; mitten; manual skill; psychomotor performance; tourniquet; first aid; hemorrhage, prevention and control

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Effects of Distance Between Paired Tourniquets

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Wall PL, Buising CM, Nelms D, Grulke L, Renner CH, Sahr SM. 17(4). 37 - 44. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Background: In practice, the distance between paired tourniquets varies with unknown effects. Methods: Ratcheting Medical Tourniquets were applied to both thighs of 15 subjects distally (fixed location) and proximally (0, 2, 4, 8, 12cm gap widths, randomized block). Applications were pair, single distal, single appropriate proximal. Tightening ended one-ratchet tooth advance past Doppler-indicated occlusion. Pairs had alternating tightening starting distal. Results: Occlusion pressures were higher for: each single than respective individual pair tourniquet, each pair distal than respective pair proximal, and each single distal than respective single proximal (all p < .0001). Despite thigh circumference increasing proximally, occlusion pressures were lower with proximal tourniquet involvement (pair or single, p < .0001). Occlusion losses before 120 seconds occurred most frequently with pairs (0cm 4, 2cm 4, 4cm 6, 8cm 7, 12cm 5 for 26 of 150), in increasing frequency with increasingly proximal singles (0cm 0, 2cm 1, 4cm 1, 8cm 2, 12cm 6 for 10 of 150, p < .0001 for trend), and least with single distal (2 of 150, p < .0001). Paired tourniquets required fewer ratchet advances per tourniquet (pair distal 5 ± 1, pair proximal 4 ± 1, single distal 6 ± 1, single proximal 6 ± 1). Final ratchet tooth advancement pressure increases (mmHg) were greatest for singles (distal 61 ± 10, proximal 0cm 53 ± 7, 2cm 51 ± 9, 4cm 50 ± 7, 8cm 45 ± 7, 12cm 36 ± 7) and least in pairs (distal 41 ± 8, proximal 32 ± 7) with progressively less pair interaction as distance increased (pressure change for the pair tourniquet not directly advanced: 0cm 13 ± 4, 2cm 10 ± 4, 4cm 6 ± 3, 8cm 1 ± 2, 12cm -1 ± 2). Conclusions: Occlusion pressures are lower for paired than single tourniquets despite variable intertourniquet distances. Very proximal placement has a pressure advantage; however, pairs and very proximal locations may be less likely to maintain occlusion. Increasingly proximal placements also increase tissue at risk; therefore, distal placements and minimal intertourniquet distances should still be recommended.

Keywords: tourniquet; hemorrhage; first aid; emergency treatment

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Use of Physical Therapists to Identify and Treat Musculoskeletal Injuries at "The Tip of the Trident"

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Shaw J, Brown L, Jansen B. 17(4). 45 - 48. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Musculoskeletal injuries continue to be the most common cause of decreased readiness and loss of productivity in all military environments. In commands with smaller footprints, such as Naval Special Warfare (NSW), every asset is critical for mission success. Studies have shown that early intervention by a medical provider can enhance healing and maintain unit readiness by preventing medical evacuations. Reports are limited with regard to Special Forces commands, especially during deployment. This article describes the injury characteristics and treatment of injuries seen by a physical therapist while deployed at forward operation commands embedded with NSW Group 2 Team 4. Over 4 months, 282 patients were evaluated and treated in southeast Afghanistan. In descending order, the three most common injured body regions were the lumbar/sacral spine (n = 82), shoulder (n = 59), and knee (n = 28). Therapy exercises (n = 461) were the most frequently performed treatment modality, followed by mobilization/manipulation (n = 394) and dry needling (n = 176). No patient evaluated was medically evacuated from the area or sent to an advanced medical site. Our data are similar to other published data reported on deployed units in terms of mechanisms and locations of injuries; thus, Special Forces commands do not appear to have unique injury patterns. These results support continued use of physical therapists in forward operations because of their ability to evaluate injuries and provide treatment modalities that help maintain the integrity of small commands at the site of injury.

Keywords: physical therapist; Naval Special Warfare; injuries, musculoskeletal

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Staff Attitudes Regarding the Impact of a Therapy Dog Program on Military Behavioral Health Patients

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Brisson S, Dekker AH. 17(4). 49 - 51. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Background: Human-animal interactions in the form of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) have become common in both civilian and military health care facilities. Evidence supports AAT as a beneficial therapeutic alternative for patients with physical disabilities and psychological disorders. Few studies have been conducted in the civilian health care setting to evaluate staff attitudes regarding the impact of an AAT program on behavioral health (BH) patients. To our knowledge, no research has examined staff attitudes on the impact and effectiveness of AAT on active-duty Servicemembers in a BH program at a military facility. Methods: At the completion of a year-long AAT dog program and after institutional review board exemption, an anonymous, six-question survey was used to examine staff attitudes (n = 29) regarding the impact and continuation of the program with military BH patients. Results: Most staff members (86%) believed the AAT dog program had a positive impact on the BH patients, including improved patient mood, greater patient relaxation, improved patient attitude toward therapy, and increased social interactions among patients. All the staff reported a desire to continue the program at the military facility. Conclusion: Most BH staff thought the year-long AAT dog program had a positive impact on patients. All staff supported continuation of the program.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy; therapy dog; military; behavioral health; staff attitudes

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The SOF Truths for Army Special Operations Forces Surgical Teams

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Baker JB, Modlin RE, Ong RC, Remick KN. 17(4). 52 - 55. (Journal Article)

Abstract

The US Army Special Operations Command and Army Medical Command are at a critical junction in Army medical training. Army Special Operations Forces (ARSOF) will receive Forward Resuscitative Surgical Teams (FRSTs) in the near future and must establish a training model to enable successful support for ARSOF operations. The military has been directed by Congress through the 2017 National Defense Authorization Act to embed trauma combat casualty care teams in civilian trauma centers. ARSOF FRSTs should be embedded in the nation's leading civilian trauma centers to build and sustain true expertise in delivering trauma care on the battlefield. The SOF Truths provide valuable insights into the required conditions for success of this new training paradigm.

Keywords: forward resuscitative surgical team; trauma

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Humanitarian Surgical Missions: Guidelines for Successful Anesthesia Support

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Fitzgerald BM, Nagy CJ, Goosman EF, Gummerson MC, Wilson JE. 17(4). 56 - 62. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Many anesthesiologists and CRNAs are provided little training in preparing for a humanitarian surgical mission. Furthermore, there is very little published literature that outlines how to plan and prepare for anesthesia support of a humanitarian surgical mission. This article attempts to serve as an in-depth planning guide for anesthesia support of humanitarian surgical missions. Recommendations are provided on planning requirements that most anesthesiologists and CRNAs do not have to consider on routinely, such as key questions to be answered before agreeing to support a mission, ordering and shipping supplies and medications, travel and lodging arrangements, and coordinating translators in a host nation. Detailed considerations are included for all the phases of mission planning: advanced, mission-specific, final, mission-execution, and postmission follow-up planning, as well as a timeline in which to complete each phase. With the proper planning and execution, the anesthetic support of humanitarian surgical missions is a very manageable task that can result in an extremely satisfying sense of accomplishment and a rewarding experience. The authors suggest this article should be used as a reference document by any anesthesia professional tasked with planning and supporting a humanitarian surgical mission.

Keywords: humanitarian surgical mission; anesthesia; planning

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Advise and Assist: A Basic Medical Skills Course for Partner Forces

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April MD, Lopes T, Schauer SG, Meneses M, Roszenweig H, Byram D, Timms-Williams Z, Shields TP, Cross AN, Hoffmann LJ. 17(4). 63 - 67. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Background: Training partner forces in battlefield first-responder medical skills is an important component of US military advise-and-assist operations. We designed and executed a training curriculum focused on high-yield-based medical skills to prevent death on the battlefield for non-English speaking members of the Turkish, Azerbaijani, and Albanian militaries deployed to Afghanistan. Methods: We designed a 2-hour training curriculum focusing on four basic medical skills: (1) assessment of scene safety; (2) limb tourniquet application; (3) wound bandaging; and (4) patient transportation via litter. Our combat medics delivered standardized training using both didactic and practicum components. Instructors made beforeand- after assessments of the proficiency of each participant for each skill in accordance with the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition. We also administered before-and-after, Likertscale- based surveys for training participants to report their self-assessed comfort level with each of the four skills. Results: We delivered training to 187 participants over five classes. All 28 participants in the final teaching class completed the study. Instructors categorized each participant's skill level as novice before training for all four skills. After the training curriculum, all participants achieved a skill level consistent with advanced beginner for all four skills. Participants reported significant improvements in self-reported comfort levels for all taught procedures (ρ < .001 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test for all four skills). The largest reported increase in median comfort level was for tourniquet application: median pretraining comfort level, 4 (interquartile range [IQR], 0-6.25) versus 9.5 (IQR, 9-10) posttraining. Conclusion: Our curriculum resulted in significant improvements in instructor-assessed proficiency and self-reported comfort level for all four basic medical skills. Although our outcome measures have important limitations, this curriculum may be useful framework for future medics and physicians designing battlefield first-responder training curricula for members of foreign militaries.

Keywords: education; wounds and injuries; emergency medical services; military personnel

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Experience With Prehospital Damage Control Capability in Modern Conflict: Results From Surgical Resuscitation Team Use

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DuBose JJ, Martens D, Frament C, Haque I, Telian S, Benson PJ. 17(4). 68 - 71. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Background: Early resuscitation and damage control surgery (DCS) are critical components of modern combat casualty care. Early and effective DCS capabilities can be delivered in a variety of settings through the use of a mobile surgical resuscitation team (SRT). Methods: Twelve years of after-action reports from SRTs were reviewed. Demographics, interventions, and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Data from 190 casualties (185 human, five canine) were reviewed. Among human casualties, 12 had no signs of life at intercept and did not survive. Of the remaining 173 human casualties, 96.0% were male and 90.8% sustained penetrating injuries. Interventions by the SRT included intravascular access (50.9%) and advanced airway establishment (29.5%). Resuscitation included whole blood (3.5%), packed red blood cells (20.8%), and thawed plasma (11.0%). Surgery was provided for 63 of the 173 human casualties (36.4%), including damage control laparotomy (23.8%) and arterial injury shunting or repair (19.0%). SRTs were effectively used to augment an existing medical treatment facility (70.5%), to facilitate casualty transport (13.3%), as an independent surgical entity at a forward ground structure (9.2%), and in mobile response directly to the point of injury (6.9%). Overall survival was 97.1%. Conclusion: An SRT provides a unique DCS capability that can be successfully used in a variety of flexible roles.

Keywords: resuscitation; damage control surgery; combat casualty care; mobile surgical resuscitation team

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Diagnostic Accuracy of Emergency Bedside Ultrasonography to Detect Cutaneous Wooden Foreign Bodies: Does Size Matter?

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Fleming ME, Heiner JD, Summers S, April MD, Chin EJ. 17(4). 72 - 75. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Background: Soft-tissue occult foreign bodies are a concerning cause of morbidity in the emergency department. The identification of wooden foreign bodies is a unique challenge because they are often not detectable by plain radiography. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography to detect wooden foreign bodies of varying sizes. We hypothesized that sonographic sensitivity would improve with increasing foreign body size. Methods: We conducted a blinded, prospective evaluation using a previously validated, chicken, soft-tissue model to simulate human tissue. We inserted wooden toothpicks of varying lengths (1mm, 2.5mm, 5mm, 7.5mm, 10mm) to a depth of 1cm in five tissue models. Five additional models were left without a foreign body to serve as controls. Fifty emergency physicians with prior ultrasonography training performed sonographic examinations of all 10 models and reported on the presence or absence of wooden foreign bodies. Results: Subjects performed 10 ultrasonography examinations each for a total of 500 examinations. For the detection of wooden foreign bodies, overall test characteristics for sonography included sensitivity 48.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.1%-54.8%) and specificity 67.6% (95% CI, 61.3%- 73.2%). Sensitivity did not change as object size increased (ρ = s.709). Conclusion: Emergency physician bedside ultrasonography demonstrated poor diagnostic accuracy for the detection of wooden foreign bodies. Accuracy did not improve with increasing object size up to 10mm. Providers should consider alternative diagnostic modalities if there is persistent clinical concern for a retained, radiolucent, soft-tissue foreign body.

Keywords: ultrasound; foreign body; wooden object

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Expeditionary Resuscitation Surgical Team: The US Army's Initiative to Provide Damage Control Resuscitation and Surgery to Forces in Austere Settings

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D'Angelo M, Losch J, Smith B, Geslak M, Compton S, Wofford K, Seery JM, Morrison M, Wedmore I, Paimore J, Gross K, Cuenca PJ, Welder MD. 17(4). 76 - 79. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Improvements in surgical care on the battlefield have contributed to reduced morbidity and mortality in wounded Servicemembers. 1 Point-of-injury care and early surgical intervention, along with improved personal protective equipment, have produced the lowest casualty statistics in modern warfare, resulting in improved force strength, morale, and social acceptance of conflict. It is undeniable that point-of-care injury, followed by early resuscitation and damage control surgery, saves lives on the battlefield. The US Army's Expeditionary Resuscitation Surgical Team (ERST) is a highly mobile, interprofessional medical team that can perform damage control resuscitation and surgery in austere locations. Its configuration and capabilities vary; however, in general, a typical surgical element can perform one major surgery and one minor surgery without resupply. The critical care element can provide prolonged holding in garrison, but this diminishes in the austere setting with complex and acutely injured patients.

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Efficacy of the Mnemonic Device "MARCH PAWS" as a Checklist for Pararescuemen During Tactical Field Care and Tactical Evacuation

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Kosequat J, Rush SC, Simonsen I, Gallo I, Scott A, Swats K, Gray CC, Mason B. 17(4). 80 - 84. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Background: The application of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) represents evidence-based medicine to improve survival in combat. Over the past several years, US Air Force Pararescuemen (PJs) have expanded the mnemonic device "MARCH" to "MARCH PAWS" for use during tactical field care and tactical evacuation (TACEVAC). The mnemonic stands for massive bleeding, airway, respiration, circulation, head and hypothermia, pain, antibiotics, wounds, and splinting. We undertook this performance improvement project to determine the efficacy of this device as a treatment checklist. Methods: The mission reports of a 16-PJ combat rescue deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) from January through June 2012 were reviewed. The triage category, mechanism of injury, injury, and treatments were noted. The treatments were then categorized to determine if they were included in MARCH PAWS. Results: The recorded data for missions involving 465 patients show that 45%, 48%, and 7%, were in category A, B, and C, respectively (urgent, priority, routine); 55% were battle injuries (BIs) and 45% were nonbattle injuries (NBIs). All treatments for BI were accounted for in MARCH PAWS. Only 9 patients' treatments with NBI were not in MARCH PAWS. Conclusion: This simple mnemonic device is a reliable checklist for PJs, corpsmen, and medics to perform TACEVAC during combat Operations, as well as care for noncombat trauma patients.

Keywords: Tactical Combat Casualty Care; survival; Pararescuemen; mnemonic; MARCH PAWS; tactical field care; tactical evacuation

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Clinical Update: The Risk of Opioid Toxicity and Naloxone Use in Operational K9s

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Palmer LE, Gautier A. 17(4). 86 - 92. (Journal Article)

Abstract

The increasing use of opioids (e.g., fentanyl, carfentanil) for illicit drug manufacturing poses a potential life-threatening hazard to law enforcement officers and first responders (e.g., EMS, fire and rescue) who may unknowingly come into contact with these drugs during the course of their daily activities. Similarly, Operational canines (OpK9s) of all disciplines-detection (drug, explosive, accelerant), patrol, tracking, search and rescue, and others-are at risk for accidental illicit opioid exposure. The most serious adverse effect of opioid exposure is respiratory depression leading to slow, shallow breathing or complete cessation of voluntary breathing (respiratory arrest). Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, is the antidote for reversing the effects of an opioid overdose in both humans and OpK9s. This clinical update describes the potential risks associated with opioid exposure as well as the use of naloxone as it pertains to the OpK9.

Keywords: Operational K9s; opioid; naloxone; intranasal; overdose; canine medicine

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Hand Injuries

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Banting J, Meriano T. 17(4). 93 - 96. (Journal Article)

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Optimizing Musculoskeletal Performance Through Injury Prevention

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de la Motte SJ, Gribbin TC, Deuster PA. 17(4). 97 - 101. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Musculoskeletal injuries (MSK-Is) are ubiquitous throughout the Special Operations Forces (SOF) because of the physical demands of executing missions and carrying heavy loads. Preventing MSK-I has been a priority among SOF but is especially challenging because most MSK-Is are chronic or recurring. For many SOF, musculoskeletal issues and MSK pain are just part of doing their job. Ways to focus, target, and integrate injury prevention efforts across the continuum of training, active duty and SOF status are critical because MSK-Is are a significant barrier to human performance optimization. In this article, we describe how to incorporate these efforts at all levels of training. The need for improving valid, objective, fit-for-full-duty metrics after injury and sharing such information continuously with SOF is discussed. Last, strategies for engaging all levels to begin a culture shift away from the acceptance of MSK-I and pain as a way of life toward embracing MSK-I prevention as a regular part of everyday training are presented.

Keywords: musculoskeletal injury; injury prevention; pain; human performance optimization

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Shigellosis

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Burnett MW. 17(4). 102 - 103. (Journal Article)

Keywords: Shigellosis; dysentery; infection

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Tools to Assess and Reduce Injury Risk (Part 2)

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Knapik JJ. 17(4). 104 - 108. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Research has shown that many injuries are preventable if the operational environment is understood. Useful tools are available to assist in assessing injury risks and in developing methods to reduce risks. This is part 2 of a two-part article that discusses these tools, which include the Haddon Matrix, the 10 Countermeasure Strategies, the Injury Prevention Process, and the US Army Risk Management Process. Part 1 covered the Haddon Matrix and the 10 Countermeasure Strategies; part 2 outlines and provides examples of the Injury Prevention Process and the US Army Risk Management Process. The Injury Prevention Process is largely oriented to systematic research and involves (1) surveillance and survey to document the size of the injury problem, (2) identification of the causes of and risk factors for injuries, (3) intervention to identify what works to prevent injuries, (4) program implementation based on documented research, and (5) program evaluation to see how well the program works in the operational environment. The US Army Risk Management Process involves (1) identifying hazards, (2) assessing hazards, (3) developing controls for reducing hazards, (4) implementing controls, and (5) supervising and evaluating controls. There is overlap among the four approaches, but each has unique aspects that can be useful for thinking about and implementing injury prevention and control measures.

Keywords: US Injury Control Process; US Army Risk Management Process; injury prevention

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Energy Balance and Diet Quality During the US Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command Individual Training Course

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Sepowitz JJ, Armstrong NJ, Pasiakos SM. 17(4). 109 - 113. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Methods: This study characterized the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), energy intake (EI), body weight, and diet quality (using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 [HEI]) of 20 male US Marines participating in the 9-month US Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command Individual Training Course (ITC). Results: TDEE was highest (ρ < .05) during Raider Spirit (RS; 6,376 ± 712kcal/d) compared with Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE; 4,011 ± 475kcal/d) School, Close-Quarters Battle (CQB; 4,189 ± 476kcal/d), and Derna Bridge (DB; 3,754 ± 314kcal/d). Body mass was lost (ρ < .05) during SERE, RS, and DB because EI was less than TDEE (SERE, -3,665kcal/d ± 475kcal/d; RS, -3,966 ± 776kcal/d; and DB, -1,027 ± 740kcal/d; p < .05). However, body mass was restored before the start of each subsequent phase and was not different between the start (86.4 ± 9.8kg) and end of ITC (86.7 ± 9.0kg). HEI score declined during ITC (before, 65.6 ± 11.2 versus after, 60.9 ± 9.7; p < .05) because less greens or beans and more empty calories were consumed (ρ < .05). Dietary protein intake was lowest during RS (0.9 ± 0.4g/kg) compared with all other phases, and carbohydrate intake during RS (3.6 ± 1g/kg), CQB (3.6 ± 1.0g/kg), and DB (3.7 ± 1.0g/kg) was lower than during the academic phase of SERE (5.1 ± 1.0g/kg; p < .05). Conclusion: These data suggest that ITC students, on average, adequately restore body mass between intermittent periods of negative energy balance. Education regarding the importance of maintaining healthy eating patterns while in garrison, consuming more carbohydrate and protein, and better matching EI with TDEE during strenuous training exercises may be warranted.

Keywords: Special Operations Forces; protein; carbohydrate; fatigue, volitional; military dietary reference intakes; weight loss

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Prolonged Field Care for the Winter 2017 Edition

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Riesberg JC. 17(4). 114 - 114. (Journal Article)

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Evaluation and Treatment of Ocular Injuries and Vision-Threatening Conditions in Prolonged Field Care

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Reynolds ME, Hoover C, Riesberg JC, Mazzoli RA, Colyer M, Barnes S, Calvano CJ, Karesh JW, Murray CK, Butler FK, Keenan S, Shackelford S. 17(4). 115 - 126. (Journal Article)

Keywords: ocular injuries; vision-threatening conditions; prolonged field care; clinical practice guidelines

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Pleuritic Chest Pain: This Can't Be Happening!

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Farrell R, Dare C, Hampton K. 17(4). 127 - 127. (Journal Article)

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Mastering the Basics Makes the Best Medics in the World: An Interview With Shawn Kane, SWMG (A) Commander and Dean of the JSOMTC

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Pennardt A. 17(4). 128 - 129. (Interview)

Abstract

Use of a Tuning Fork for Fracture Evaluation: An Introduction for Education and Exposure

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Hetzler MR. 17(4). 130 - 132. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Radiographs, bones scans, and even ultrasound may be rare in the austere or acute environment for the evaluation of suspected musculoskeletal fractures. Having an easy, simple, and confident means of objective evaluation used in conjunction with the patient presentation, history, and physical findings may provide a more efficient and economical means of treatment. This introduction and review of selected literature are meant to provide a fuller understanding and consideration for the methods of using a tuning fork in fracture assessment.

Keywords: tuning fork; fracture; austere; operational medicine; primitive medicine

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"Evita Una Muerte, Esta en Tus Manos" Program: Bystander First Aid Training for Terrorist Attacks

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Pajuelo Castro JJ, Meneses Pardo JC, Salinas Casado PL, Hernandez Martin P, Montilla Canet R, del Campo Cuesta JL, Incera Bustio G, Martin Ayuso D. 17(4). 133 - 137. (Journal Article)

Abstract

Background: The latest terrorist attacks in Europe and in the rest of the world, and the military experience in the most recent conflicts leave us with several lessons learned. The most important is that the fate of the wounded rests in the hands of the one who applies the first dressing, because the victims usually die within the first 10 minutes, before professional care providers or police personnel arrive at the scene. A second lesson is that the primary cause of preventable death in these types of incidents involving explosives and firearms is massive hemorraghe. Objective: There is a need to develop a training oriented to citizens so they can identify and use available resources to avoid preventable deaths that occur in this kind of incidents, especially massive hemorrhage. Methods: A 7-hour training intervention program was developed and conducted between January and May 2017. Data were collected from participants' answers on a multiple-choice test before and after undertaking the training. Improved mean score for at least 75% of a group's members on the posttraining test was considered reflective of adequate knowledge. Results: A total of 173 participants (n = 74 men [42.8%]; n = 99 women [57.2%]) attended the training. They were classified into three groups: a group of citizens/ first responders with no prior health training, a group of health professionals, and a group of nursing students. Significant differences (ρ < .05) between mean pre- and post-training test scores occurred in each of the three groups. Conclusion: There was a clear improvement in the knowledge of the students after the training when pre- and post-training test scores were compared within the three groups. The greatest improvement was seen in the citizens/first responders group

Keywords: tourniquet; hemostatic; compression bandage; terrorism; mass-casualty event

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Blood and Belonging: Journeys Into the New Nationalism

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Farr W. 17(4). 138 - 138. (Book Review)

Abstract

Ignatieff, Michael. Blood and Belonging: Journeys Into the New Nationalism. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux; 1995. Paperback: 276 pages. ISBN-10: 0374524483 and ISBN-13:978-0374524487.

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Butler FK. 17(4). 142 - 147. (Classical Conference)