Deaton TG, Auten JD, Betzold R, Butler FK, Byrne T, Cap AP, Donham B, DuBose JJ, Fisher AD, Hancock J, Jourdain V, Knight RM, Littlejohn LF, Martin MJ, Toland K, Drew B. 21(4). 126 - 137. (Classical Conference)
Hemorrhagic shock in combat trauma remains the greatest life threat to casualties with potentially survivable injuries. Advances in external hemorrhage control and the increasing use of damage control resuscitation have demonstrated significant success in decreasing mortality in combat casualties. Presently, an expanding body of literature suggests that fluid resuscitation strategies for casualties in hemorrhagic shock that include the prehospital use of cold-stored or fresh whole blood when available, or blood components when whole blood is not available, are superior to crystalloid and colloid fluids. On the basis of this recent evidence, the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) has conducted a review of fluid resuscitation for the combat casualty who is in hemorrhagic shock and made the following new recommendations: (1) cold stored low-titer group O whole blood (CS-LTOWB) has been designated as the preferred resuscitation fluid, with fresh LTOWB identified as the first alternate if CS-LTOWB is not available; (2) crystalloids and Hextend are no longer recommended as fluid resuscitation options in hemorrhagic shock; (3) target systolic blood pressure (SBP) resuscitation goals have been redefined for casualties with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) coexisting with their hemorrhagic shock; and (4) empiric prehospital calcium administration is now recommended whenever blood product resuscitation is required.