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Summer 2020 Cover
Influence of Celox Rapid's Mode of Action Under Normal and Compromised Blood Conditions

Hoggarth A, Grist M, Murch T 20(2). 154 - 155 (Journal Article)

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Summer 2020 Cover
Murphy's Law?

Hampton K, Van Humbeeck L 20(2). 148 (Journal Article)

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Summer 2020 Cover
Nongovernment Organizations Providing Medical Care in Austere Environments and Challenges They Face

Glavacevic L, Karlovic K, Gallagher E 20(2). 144 - 147 (Journal Article)

Nongovernment organizations (NGOs) have become increasingly common in conflict zones throughout the world. They provide services that have been the responsibility of understaffed, undersupplied, and undertrained local nations and communities. However, these organizations face many difficulties. They are walking a thin line between militaries, governments, and local politics. They must find ways to stay supplied and staffed. The research presented in this article focuses on three NGOs and the impact they are making throughout the world. By understanding the role these organizations play in providing medical relief to conflict zones without the help of government agencies, one can see the importance of their work and the struggles they face.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Mouthguards for the Prevention of Orofacial Injuries in Military and Sports Activities: Part 1: History of Mouthguard Use

Knapik JJ, Hoedebecke BL, Mitchener TA 20(2). 139 - 143 (Journal Article)

This is the first of a two-part series on the history and effectiveness of mouthguards (MGs) for orofacial injury protection. Military studies have shown that approximately 60% of orofacial injuries are associated with military training activities and 20% to 30% with sports. MGs are hypothesized to reduce orofacial injuries by separating the upper and lower dentation, preventing tooth fractures, redistributing and absorbing the force of direct blows to the mouth, and separating teeth from soft tissue, preventing lacerations and bruises. In 1975, CPT Leonard Barber was the first to advocate MGs for military sports activities. In 1998, Army health promotion campaigns promoted MG education and fabrication. A US Army basic training study in 2000-2003 showed that more MG use could reduce orofacial injuries and the Army Training and Doctrine Command subsequently required that basic trainees be issued and use MGs. Army Regulation 600-63 currently directs commanders to enforce MG use during training and sports activities that could involve orofacial injuries. In the civilian sector, MGs were first used by boxers and then were required for football. MGs are currently required nationally for high school and college football, field hockey, ice hockey, and lacrosse, and are recommended for 29 sport and exercise activities.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Measles (Rubeola): An Update

Crecelius EM, Burnett MW 20(2). 136 - 138 (Journal Article)

Measles is a significant concern with approximately 10 million people infected annually causing over 100,000 deaths worldwide. In the US before use of the measles vaccine, there were estimated to be 3 to 4 million people infected with measles annually, causing 400 to 500 deaths. Complications of measles include otitis media, diarrhea, pneumonia, and acute encephalitis. Measles is a leading cause of blindness in the developing world, especially in those who are vitamin A deficient. Malnourished children with measles are also at higher risk of developing noma (or cancrum oris), a rapidly progressive gangrenous infection of the mouth and face. Most deaths due to measles are caused by pneumonia, diarrhea, or neurological complications in young children, severely malnourished or immunocompromised individuals, and pregnant women. A rare sequela of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Be in the Know: Dietary Supplements for Cognitive Performance

Crawford C, Deuster PA 20(2). 132 - 135 (Journal Article)

Dietary supplements promoted for brain health and enhanced cognitive performance are becoming increasingly popular. Special Operations Forces (SOF) is likely a prime target for this market as they strive to continually optimize and then sustain their high level of performance at all times. When a dietary supplement hits the market, it is considered safe until it is proven otherwise; yet the majority have not been analyzed for quality or tested for safety. The authors describe issues related to products marketed for brain health and cognitive enhancement and focus on products brought to our attention by the operational communities. The overwhelming majority of product labels were found to be misbranded and some were found to contain prohibited ingredients and drugs. The problematic ingredients in these products are introduced. The Operation Supplement Safety scorecard algorithm is demonstrated as a tool to quickly screen a product for potential safety; it can be used in real-time when considering the use of any dietary supplement product. These resources are available to help SOF medical assets evaluate whether a product's claims may be deceiving and potentially harmful to the health or career of Operators.

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Summer 2020 Cover
An Assessment of Decontamination Strategies for Materials Commonly Used in Canine Equipment

Perry EB, Powell EB, Discepolo DR, Francis JM, Liang SY 20(2). 127 - 131 (Journal Article)

Working canines are frequently exposed to hazardous environments with a high potential for contamination. Environmental contamination may occur in many ways. Contamination may be chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear. Examples may include a pipeline rupture following an earthquake, microbiological contamination of floodwaters, or exposure to toxic industrial chemical such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, or toluene. Evidence to support effective methods for decontamination of equipment commonly used by working canines is lacking. Recent work has identified decontamination protocols for working canines, but little data are available to guide the decontamination of equipment used during tactical operations. The objective of our work was to investigate the effects of cleanser, cleaning method, and material type on contaminant reduction for tactical canine equipment materials using an oil-based contaminant as a surrogate for toxic industrial chemical exposure. A contaminant was applied, and effectiveness was represented as either success (≥ 50% contaminant reduction) or failure (< 50% contaminant reduction). A two-phase study was used to investigate cleanser, method of cleaning, and material types for effective contaminant reduction. In phase 1, Simple Green® cleanser had a higher frequency (P = .0075) of failure, but method and material did not affect contamination reduction (P >.05). In phase 2, Dawn® (P = .0004) and Johnson's® (P = .0414) successfully reduced contamination. High-pressure cleaning (HPC) resulted in successful decontamination (P < .0001). These novel data demonstrate potential techniques for reduction of contaminants on tactical canine equipment.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Fresh Whole Blood Collection and Transfusion at Point of Injury, Prolonged Permissive Hypotension, and Intermittent REBOA: Extreme Measures Led to Survival in a Severely Injured Soldier-A Case Report

Lewis C, Nilan M, Srivilasa C, Knight RM, Shevchik J, Bowen B, Able T, Kreishman P 20(2). 123 - 126 (Journal Article)

We present the case of a severely injured Special Operations Servicemember whose care was remarkable for three unique interventions: the first use of a walking blood bank performed at the point of injury, prolonged permissive hypotension, and intermittent resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA).

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Summer 2020 Cover
Tourniquets USA: A Review of the Current Literature for Commercially Available Alternative Tourniquets for Use in the Prehospital Civilian Environment

Martinson J, Park H, Butler FK, Hammesfahr R, DuBose JJ, Scalea TM 20(2). 116 - 122 (Journal Article)

The American College of Surgeons' "Stop the Bleed" (STB) campaign emphasizes how to apply the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT), a device adopted by the military to control extremity hemorrhage. However, multiple commercially available alternatives to the CAT exist, and it would be helpful for instructors to be knowledgeable about how these other models compare. A PubMed search from January 2012 to January 2020 cross-referenced with a Google search for "tourniquet" was performed for commercially available tourniquets that had been trialed against the CAT. Windlass-type models included the Special Operations Forces Tactical Tourniquet (SOFT-T), the SOFT-T Wide (SOFFT-W), the SAM-XT tourniquet, the Military Emergency Tourniquet (MET), and the Tactical Medical Tourniquet (TMT). Elastic-type tourniquets included were the Stretch, Wrap, And Tuck Tourniquet (SWAT-T), the Israeli Silicone Tourniquet (IST), and the Rapid Activation Tourniquet System (RATS). Ratchet-type tourniquets included were the Ratcheting Medical Tourniquet (RMT) and TX2/TX3 tourniquets, and pneumatic-type tourniquets were the Emergency and Military Tourniquet (EMT) and Tactical Pneumatic Tourniquet (TPT). This review aims to describe the literature surrounding these models so that instructors can help laypeople make more informed purchases, stop the bleed, and save a life.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Temporizing Life-Threatening Abdominal-Pelvic Hemorrhage Using Proprietary Devices, Manual Pressure, or a Single Knee: An Integrative Review of Proximal External Aortic Compression and Even "Knee BOA"

O'Dochartaigh D, Picard CT, Brindley PG, Douma MJ 20(2). 110 - 114 (Journal Article)

Introduction: Abdominal-pelvic hemorrhage (i.e., originates below the diaphragm and above the inguinal ligaments) is a major cause of death. It has diverse etiology but is typically associated with gunshot or stab wounds, high force or velocity blunt trauma, aortic rupture, and peripartum bleeds. Because there are few immediately deployable, temporizing measures, and the standard approaches such as direct pressure, hemostatics, and tourniquets are less reliable than they are with compressible extremity injuries, risk for death resulting from abdominal-pelvic hemorrhage is high. This review concerns the exciting potential of proximal external aortic compression (PEAC) as a temporizing technique for life-threatening lower abdominal-pelvic hemorrhage. PEAC can be accomplished by means of a device, two locked arms (manual), or a single knee (genicular) to press over the midline supra-umbilical abdomen. The goal is to compress the descending aorta and slow or halt downstream hemorrhage while not delaying more definitive measures such as hemostatic packing, tourniquets, endovascular balloons, and ultimately operative repair. Methods: Clinical review of the Ovid MEDLINE, In-Process, & Other Non-Indexed, and Google Scholar databases was performed for the period ranging from 1946 to 3 May 2019 for studies that included the following search terms: [proximal] external aortic compression OR vena cava compression AND (abdomen or pelvis) OR (hemorrhage) OR (emergency or trauma). In addition, references from included studies were assessed. Conclusion: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Evidence was grouped and summarized from the specialties of trauma, aortic surgery, and obstetrics to help prehospital responders and guide much-needed additional research, with the goal of decreasing the high risk for death after life-threatening abdominal-pelvic hemorrhage.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Preparations for a Controversial Speaker and Anticipated Volatility in a College Town

Slish J, Hwang C, Holtsman L, Jones J, Stout D, Abo BN, Ryan M 20(2). 104 - 109 (Journal Article)

In summer of 2017 in Charlottesville, Virginia, white nationalists clashed with counterprotestors, ultimately leading to the death of three people and leaving 34 more injured. Soon after, the same group was granted permission to speak on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. Despite our college town having limited resources and personnel, the comprehensive and extensive preparation preceding the event ensured a peaceful resolution for such a large and potentially volatile situation. The preparatory steps required joint efforts from local and state partners in law enforcement, emergency medical services, and emergency departments. We describe here the situation we faced, the pre-event preparations, the response in the field and in our emergency department, and the outcomes from an emergency and tactical medicine perspective. We hope our successful experience will impart knowledge for similar events.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Quality Assurance in Tactical Combat Casualty Care for Medical Personnel Training 16 April 2020

Greydanus DJ, Hassmann LL, Butler FK 20(2). 95 - 103 (Journal Article)

At present, however, there is no systematic, comprehensive quality assurance program for TCCC training throughout the DoD. Individual courses and instructors may or may not use all of the materials in the JTS-approved curriculum; they may or may not add content that is not part of the JTS curriculum; and they may or may not add additional training in the form of advanced simulation, hands-on training with moulaged casualties, graded trauma lanes, or live-tissue training. A recent pilot appraisal of four Tactical Combat Casualty Care for Medical Personnel (TCCC-MP) training courses found that TCCC-MP courses are not presenting all of the course material recommended by the Joint Trauma System (JTS), despite TCCC training having been mandated by the Department of Defense (DoD) for all US military personnel. Some of the omitted material is essential to ensuring that students are fully prepared to perform TCCC on the battlefield. Further, there was incorrect messaging presented in the TCCC-MP courses that were appraised, some of which, if actually reflected in the care provided on the battlefield, would likely result in adverse casualty outcomes. Other aspects of the TCCC messaging presented in the appraised courses that is not at present part of the JTS-approved curriculum might, however, be appropriate for inclusion into the TCCC Guidelines and the course curriculum. Examples of material that should be considered for incorporation into the TCCC curriculum include modifying the method of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration (slow IV push vs the currently recommended 10-minute infusion) and a better technique for securing of the new CAT Generation 7 tourniquets after application. The course appraiser also noted that there were a number of excellent videos of actual TCCC interventions being performed that are not part of the current JTS-approved TCCC-MP curriculum. These videos should be forwarded to CoTCCC staff and the Joint Trauma Education and Training (JTET) branch of the JTS for consideration as potential additions to the TCCC-MP curriculum. Consideration should also be given to the inclusion of additional TCCC training modalities such as advanced simulators, moulaged casualties, graded trauma lanes, autologous blood transfusion training, and the use of live-tissue training (when logistically feasible) for selected course items such as surgical airways. Further, the 16-hour training time currently allotted for TCCC-MP training was found to be insufficient to present all of academic material and testing contained in the existing TCCC-MP curriculum. A 5-day course should be considered to include the entire JTS-recommended curriculum and to add graded trauma lanes and autologous blood transfusion training to the core JTS TCCC-MP curriculum. The post-course written testing also needs to use the standardized TCCC fund of knowledge questions and the TCCC Critical Decision Case Study questions developed by the JTS. Finally, there is a need to establish a systematic and standardized quality assurance program to ensure that TCCC training programs are carried out in accordance with the JTS-recommended TCCC curriculum. This program would best be performed as a new function of the CoTCCC with dedicated TCCC course appraisers.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Clothing Effects on Limb Tourniquet Application

Wall PL, Buising CM, Hingtgen E, Smith H, Renner CH 20(2). 83 - 94 (Journal Article)

Background: Sometimes tourniquets are applied over clothing. This study explored clothing effects on pressures and application process. Methods: Generation 7 Combat Application Tourniquets (C-A-T7), Generation 3 SOF® Tactical Tourniquets-Wide (SOFTTW), Tactical Ratcheting Medical Tourniquets (Tac RMT), and Stretch Wrap And Tuck Tourniquets (SWATT) were used with different clothing conditions (Bare, Scrubs, Uniform, Tights) mid-thigh and on models (ballistic gel and yoga mats). Results: Clothing affected pressure responses to controlled force applications (weight hangs, n=5 thighs and models, nonlinear curve fitting, p < .05). On models, clothing affected secured pressures by altering surface interactions (medians: Gel Bare C-A-T7 247mmHg, SOFTTW 99mmHg, Tac RMT 101mmHg versus Gel Clothing C-A-T7 331mmHg, SOFTTW 170mmHg, Tac RMT 148mmHg; Mats Bare C-A-T7 246mmHg, SOFTTW 121mmHg, Tac RMT 99mmHg versus Mats Clothing C-A-T7 278mmHg, SOFTTW 145mmHg, Tac RMT 138mmHg). On thighs, clothing did not significantly influence secured pressures (n=15 kneeling appliers, n=15 standing appliers) or occlusion and completion pressures (n=15). Eleven of 15 appliers reported securing on clothing as most difficult. Fourteen of 15 reported complete applications on clothing as most difficult. Conclusions: Clothing will not necessarily affect tourniquet pressures. Surface to tourniquet interactions affect the ease of strap sliding, so concern should still exist as to whether applications over clothing are dislodged in a distal direction more easily than applications on skin.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Step Duration Effects on Blood Loss in Simulated Designs of Tourniquet Use Procedure

Kragh JF, Aden JK, Dubick MA 20(2). 76 - 82 (Journal Article)

Background: We sought new knowledge by further developing a model of using calculations in the simulation of a first-aid task. The purpose of this study was to develop the model to investigate the performance of tourniquet use in its component steps. Methods: We aimed to design an experiment on a desktop computer by mathematically manipulating simulated data in tourniquet use. A time factor of tourniquet use was ranged widely through time challenges in five degrees from ideal to worst performances. Redesigning the task was assessed by time costs and blood losses. Results: The step of tourniquet application took 17% of the trial time and securing the tourniquet after bleeding control took the longest amount of the trial time, 31%. A minority of the time (48% [17% + 31%] to apply tourniquet plus secure it) was spent after the tourniquet touched the patient, whereas most of the time (52%) was spent before the tourniquet touched the patient. The step of tourniquet application lost 14% of the total blood lost, whereas no blood was lost during securing the tourniquet, because that was the moment of bleeding control despite securing the tourniquet taking much time (31%). Most (86%) of blood lost occurred before the tourniquet touched the patient. But blood losses differed 10-fold, with a maximum of 2,434mL, which, when added to a pretask indication blood loss of 177mL, summed to 2,611mL. Before redesigning the task, costs of donning gloves and calling 9-1-1 included uncontrolled bleeding, but gloving mitigated risk of spreading pathogens among people. By step and person, redesigns of the task altered the risk-benefit profile. Conclusions: The model was useful because it simulated where most of the bleeding occurred before the tourniquet touched the patient. Modeling simulated redesigns of the task, which showed changes in the task's risk-benefit profile by step and among persons. The model generated hypotheses for future research, including the capability to screen candidate ideas among task designs.

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Summer 2020 Cover
Tourniquest

Wall PL, Buising CM 20(2). 22 - 23 (Journal Article)

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Summer 2020 Cover
Tourniquets Last to Tourniquets First

Kragh JF, Aden JK, Dubick MA 20(2). 20 - 21 (Journal Article)

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Characterizing a System for Measuring Limb Tourniquet Pressures

20(1). 47 - 54 (Journal Article)

Background: Pressure is an important variable in emergency use limb tourniquet science. This study characterizes one system for measuring tourniquet-applied pressure. Methods: A neonatal blood pressure cuff bladder was inflated to target pressures over atmospheric. Unconstrained or constrained within 1-inch tubular polyester webbing, the neonatal cuff was placed in a 500mL Erlenmeyer flask. A 3-hole stopper provided connections to flask interior (chamber) and bladder pressure sensors and a 60mL syringe for altering chamber pressure: atmospheric to >1500mmHg absolute to atmospheric. Results: Within a finite range of chamber pressures, the neonatal cuffbased system accurately indicates applied pressure (minimum and maximum 95% confidence interval linear regression slopes of 0.9871 to 0.9953 and y-intercepts of -0.1144 to 2.157). The visually defined linear response ranges for bladder inflation pressures were as follows for unconstrained/ constrained: 100 to 400mmHg unconstrained/450mmHg constrained for 10mmHg, 150 unconstrained/100 constrained to 450mmHg for 12mmHg, 150 to 500mmHg for 15mmHg, 150 to 500mmHg unconstrained/550mmHg constrained for 18mmHg, 150 to 550mmHg for 21mmHg. Below the linear response range, the inflated bladder system indicated higher pressures than chamber pressures. Above the linear response range, the system indicated progressively lower pressures than chamber pressures. Conclusions: Within the linear response range, the bladder pressure accurately indicates surface-applied pressure.

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Freeze Dried Plasma Administration Within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry

20(1). 43 - 45 (Journal Article)

Hemorrhage is common among the combat injured, and plasma plays a vital role in blood product resuscitation. Regarding freeze dried plasma (FDP), US forces have had limited access to this product compared with other countries. In 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration provided emergency authorization for Department of Defense (DoD) use through the newly congressionally directed military use pathway. We describe the documented uses of FDP by US forces by performing a secondary analysis of two previously described datasets from the DoD Trauma Registry. In 11 identified cases, the median age was 28; cases were most frequently male, part of Operation Enduring Freedom, with US military affiliation, and injured by explosive or gunshot wound. The median injury severity score was 21; most did not receive a massive transfusion. Most survived to hospital discharge. Ongoing surveillance is warranted to optimize the implementation of FDP into military prehospital guidelines, training, and doctrine.

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