Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a struggle for medical systems throughout the world. In austere locations in which testing, resupply, and evacuation have been limited or impossible, unique challenges exist. This case series demonstrates the importance of population isolation in preventing disease from overwhelming medical assets. Methods: This is a case series describing the outbreak of COVID-19 in an isolated population in Africa. The population consists of a main population with a Role 2 capability, with several supported satellite populations with a Role 1 capability. Outbreaks in five satellite population centers occurred over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic from its start on approximately 1 March 2020 until 28 April 2020, when a more robust medical asset became available at the central evacuation hub within the main population. Results: Population movement controls and the use of telehealth prevented the spread within the main population at risk and enabled the setup of medical assets to prepare for anticipated widespread disease. Conclusion: Isolation of disease in the satellite populations and treating in place, rather than immediately moving to the larger population center's medical facilities, prevented widespread exposure. Isolation also protected critical patient transport capabilities for use for high-risk patients. In addition, this strategy provided time and resources to develop infrastructure to handle anticipated larger outbreaks.
The increase in global violence in recent years has changed the paradigm of emergency health care, requiring early medical response to victims in hostile settings where the usual work cannot be done safely. In Spain, this specific role is provided by the Tactical Environment Medical Support Teams (in Spanish, EMAETs). The Victoria I Consensus document defines and recognizes this role, whose main lines of work are the emergency medical response to the tactical team and to the victims in areas under indirect threat, provided that the tactical operators can guarantee their safety. To reinforce the suitability of this approach, we submitted the possible outcomes of this response model to a panel of national experts to assess this proposal in the different areas of Spain. The chosen research design is a conventional Delphi method, based on the content of the Victoria I Consensus response model. The panel of 52 expert reviewers from 11 different regions were surveyed anonymously; a high degree of accord was recognized when the congruence of the responses exceeded 75%. Consensus agreement was reached in all sections of the survey after two iterations. Specific contributions and recommendations were made to achieve unanimous consensus despite the population and resource differences in the country. Our results suggest that the EMAET approach is useful in areas with short response times. However, in more sparsely populated areas, this may not be feasible, and a more pragmatic response model may be suitable.