Background: The Abdominal Aortic Junctional Tourniquet, when modified with an off-label, prototype, accessory pressure distribution plate (AAJT-TP), has the potential to control noncompressible torso hemorrhage in prolonged field care. Methods: Using a lethal, noncompressible torso hemorrhage model, 24 male Yorkshire swine (81kg-96kg) were randomly assigned into two groups (control or AAJT-TP). Anesthetized animals were instrumented and an 80% laparoscopic, left-side liver lobe transection was performed. At 10 minutes, the AAJT-TP was applied and inflated to an intraabdominal pressure of 40mmHg. At 20 minutes after application, the AAJT-TP was deflated, but the windlass was left tightened. Animals were observed for a prehospital time of 60 minutes. Animals then underwent damage control surgery at 180 minutes, followed by an intensive care unit-phase of care for an additional 240 minutes. Survival was the primary end point. Results: Compared with Hextend, survival was not significantly different in the AAJT-TP group (ρ = .564), nor was blood loss (3.3L ± 0.5L and 3.0L ± 0.5L, respectively; p = .285). There was also no difference in all physiologic parameters between groups at the end of the study or end of the prehospital phase. Three of 12 AAJT-TP animals had an inferior vena cava thrombus. Conclusion: The AAJT-TP did not provide any survival benefit compared with Hextend alone in this model of noncompressible torso hemorrhage.
Palmer LE. 18(4). 123 - 130. (Journal Article)
Major trauma often involves varying degrees of hemorrhage. Left unattended, any amount of trauma-induced hemorrhage may rapidly become life threatening. Similar to humans, Operational canines (OpK9s) can suffer penetrating trauma and blunt trauma that lead to compressible and noncompressible hemorrhage. Preserving organ function and saving the life of a massively bleeding OpK9 require the implementation of immediate and effective hemostatic measures. Effective hemorrhage control interventions for the exsanguinating OpK9 are similar to those for humans: direct pressure, wound packing, hemostatic agents and devices, pressure bandage, and, possibly, tourniquet application. Although tourniquet application is a life-saving intervention in humans experiencing extremity hemorrhage, it is not considered a necessary, immediate-action life-saving intervention for canines with extremity injuries. This article provides a brief description of the basic methods for identifying life-threatening hemorrhage and achieving immediate hemostasis in the bleeding OpK9 during the prehospital period.