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Psychological Reslilence and Postdeployment Social Support Protect against Traumatic Stress and Depressive Symptoms In Soldiers Returning From Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

Summer 2009

Pietrzak RH, Johnson DC, Goldstein MB, Malley JC, Southwick SM. 09(3). 67 - 73. (Previously Published)

Previously Published in Depression and Anxiety 0 : 17 (2009). Permission granted to republish in the JSOM.


Background: A number of studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and related psychiatric conditions in Soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), but none have examined whether factors such as psychological resilience and social support may protect against these conditions in this population. Methods:Atotal of 272 predominantly older reserve/National Guard OEF/OIF veterans completed a mail survey assessing traumatic stress and depressive symptoms, resilience, and social support. Results: Resilience scores in the full sample were comparable to those observed in civilian outpatient primary-care patients. Respondents with PTSD, however, scored significantly lower on this measure and on measures of unit support and postdeployment social support. Ahierarchical regression analysis in the full sample suggested that resilience (specifically, increased personal control and positive acceptance of change) and postdeployment social support were negatively associated with traumatic stress and depressive symptoms, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics and combat exposure. Conclusions: These results suggest that interventions to bolster psychological resilience and postdeployment social support may help reduce the severity of traumatic stress and depressive symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans.

PMID: 19739479